The Valor Math Program offers a differentiated mathematics instruction that engages students in interactive experiences supported by the use of manipulatives, models, textbooks, and technology. Students will move from the concrete foundational stage to the investigative stage and finally to the project-based stage of contextual application. Frequent and ongoing assessment, in a variety of forms, guides the instructional decisions made by teachers. Assessments include the opportunities for demonstrating mastery and high-level thinking.

Learn about new **Applied STEM opportunities** for the 2018–19 school year.

### Mathematics Department Courses

Algebra I Math Lab is a specialized supplemental course used to support students through Algebra I. The course is designed to identify gaps in student knowledge and aid in fortifying student skills. Math Lab provides a consistent opportunity for additional assistance on assessment preparation, course assignments, homework, and practice. Math Lab provides a more individualized opportunity as the math lab instructor works directly with the students Algebra I teacher to offer the best possible support. An emphasis is placed on showing students how perseverance can be used to glorify the Lord.

**Grade: **9

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Placement will be determined based on admissions testing and middle school math performance.

**Notes: **This is a Pass/Fail course.

Geometry Math Lab is a specialized supplemental course used to support students through their Geometry course. The course is designed to identify gaps in student knowledge and aid in fortifying student skills. Math Lab provides a consistent opportunity for additional assistance on assessment preparation, course assignments, homework, and practice. Math Lab provides a more individualized opportunity as the instructor works directly with the students Geometry teacher to offer the best possible support. An emphasis is placed on showing students how perseverance can be used to glorify the Lord.

**Grade: **10

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Recommendation from student’s Algebra I teacher.

**Notes: **This is a Pass/Fail course.

Algebra II Math Lab is a specialized supplemental course used to support students through Algebra II. The course is designed to identify gaps in student knowledge and aid in fortifying student skills. Math Lab provides a consistent opportunity for additional assistance on assessment preparation, course assignments, homework, and practice. Math Lab provides a more individualized opportunity as the instructor works directly with the students Algebra II teacher to offer the best possible support. An emphasis is placed on showing students how perseverance can be used to glorify the Lord.

**Grade: **11

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Recommendation from student’s Geometry teacher.

**Notes: **This is a Pass/Fail course.

Algebra I introduces students to the fundamentals of algebra. This course will encourage foundational understanding, procedural fluency, and analytical reasoning and aims to introduce the idea of a divine loving creator who is revealed through order and design. Topics include operations with real numbers and variable expressions, including exponential expressions, solving and graphing linear equations, inequalities, and systems, factoring polynomials, solving and graphing quadratic equations, solving rational equations, solving radical equations and simplifying expressions. Algebra I stresses a systematic approach to problem-solving while reinforcing critical thinking skills. This course will encourage analysis through real-world applications and provide students the opportunity to build the necessary reasoning and communication skills to be successful in future math courses.

**Grade: **9

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **None

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator.

Geometry applies the skills gleaned in Algebra I to study geometric figures in two and three dimensions. The course is designed to increase students' understanding of spatial relationships, mathematical analysis, and communication as well as how to use logic and reasoning to better understand and articulate biblical truths. Topics include points, lines, planes, angles and segments as applied to parallel and perpendicular lines, triangles, similar figures, right triangle trigonometry, quadrilaterals, circles, areas, transformations, and proofs. This course includes writing formal proofs to develop logical reasoning skills and clear mathematical communication. Emphasis is placed on applying the basic terminology and concepts of geometry in a logical and organized manner. This course, as well as Algebra I, provides a solid foundation for success in Algebra II.

**Grade: **9, 10

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Completion of Algebra I. Admissions and placement examination and approval by the student’s Academic & College Counselor required for incoming 9th graders.

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator.

Honors Geometry covers an accelerated Geometry course expanding on many of the concepts of Algebra I as well as the introducing the study of geometric figures in two and three dimensions. This course will focus on the development of higher-level critical thinking skills through a variety of applications and projects as well as logic and reasoning skills which will be applied to examine biblical truths. Topics include points, lines, planes, angles and segments as applied to parallel and perpendicular lines, triangles, similar figures, right triangle trigonometry, quadrilaterals, circles, areas, transformations, and proofs. This course includes writing formal proofs to develop logical reasoning skills and clear mathematical communication. In addition, the Honors Geometry course also introduces deductive reasoning, laws of logic, projects applying laws of logic to scripture, trigonometry--law of sines, law of cosines, as well as a more extensive coverage of the conic sections. The course includes assignments, applications, and exams at a greater depth and difficulty level in order to adequately prepare students for Honors Algebra II.

**Grade: **9, 10

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Grade of 93% or better in Algebra 1. Admissions and placement examination and approval by the student’s Academic & College Counselor required for incoming 9th graders.

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-83 or TI-84 calculator.

Algebra II & Trigonometry expands on the foundational concepts taught in Algebra I and Geometry. This course uses a systematic approach to problem-solving as well as periodic exploratory investigations to help develop critical thinking skills as well as the idea of a loving and divine creator who is revealed through order and design. and Topics include polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, quadratic, rational, and trigonometric functions, as well as systems of equations and inequalities, matrices, powers, roots, and radicals and an introduction to probability and statistics. In addition, this course provides numerical, algebraic, and graphical analysis using both the TI graphing calculator and spreadsheets. Emphasis is placed on written expression in the form of well-structured algebraic communication that documents a logical thought process and support for a correct response. This course provides the necessary foundation for advanced mathematical study in upper-level courses as well as a foundation for standardized test preparation.

**Grade: **10, 11, 12

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Completion of Algebra I and Geometry. Admissions and placement examination and approval by the student’s Academic & College Counselor required for incoming 9th graders.

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator.

Honors Algebra II & Trigonometry covers an accelerated Algebra II Trigonometry curriculum. This course expands the concepts of Algebra I and Geometry with a focus on higher-level critical thinking skills and applications as well as the idea of a loving and divine creator who is revealed through order and design. This course maintains a high level of rigor and will present the topics covered in Algebra II including polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, quadratic, rational, and trigonometric functions, as well as systems of equations and inequalities, matrices, powers, roots, and radicals and an introduction to probability. In addition, this course includes an in-depth study of the composition and graphs of polynomial, rational, and trigonometric functions, as well as the addition of linear programming, sequences, and series. This course also teaches basic spreadsheet skills through application as well as integrates programming on a graphing calculator. The course maintains a quick pace as new concepts are introduced each day and is designed to prepare students for Dual Credit Pre-Calculus.

**Grade: **9, 10, 11

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Grade of 93% or better in Geometry or 83% or better in Honors Geometry. Admissions and placement examination and approval by the student’s Academic & College Counselor required for incoming 9th graders.

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-83 or TI-84 calculator.

College Algebra expands on the topics and concepts of Algebra II with a focus on going deeper with fewer topics in an effort to secure mastery of all algebra topics. This course combines direct instruction with topical projects designed to broaden students understanding of each concept and to reveal God’s divine power through order and design. This course also utilizes mastery-based learning strategies to ensure students gain a solid foundation of basic concepts. Topics include identifying, solving and graphing algebraic functions of all forms, solving systems of equations and inequalities, mathematical modeling, polynomial manipulation, trigonometry, rational functions, conic sections, trigonometric functions, and matrices. This course is designed to prepare students for upper-level math courses.

**Grade: **10, 11, 12

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Completion of Algebra 1, Geometry, and Algebra II / Trigonometry and approval by the student’s Academic & College Counselor.

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator.

Pre-Calculus extends the concepts covered in Algebra II & Trigonometry and strengthens students’ understanding of the elementary functions and mathematical reasoning. An emphasis is placed on both a systematic approach to problem-solving as well as exploratory investigation to deepen students knowledge and to reveal God’s divine power through order and design. Topics expanded on from Algebra II and Trigonometry include; polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, quadratic, rational, and trigonometric functions, as well as systems of equations and inequalities, powers, roots, and radicals and an introduction to probability and statistics. New topics introduced include the study of vectors, sequences and series, conic sections, and polar coordinates. Additionally, the calculus ideas of limits and slopes of curves are introduced in preparation for the study of calculus. This course is designed to prepare students for college-level math courses including calculus.

**Grade: **10, 11, 12

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: Grade of 83% or better in Algebra II/Trigonometry or a 73% in Honors Algebra II/Trigonometry.**

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator.

Dual Credit Precalculus is a college level course that will extend on the topics covered in Honors Algebra II/Trigonometry. This course covers an accelerated Precalculus curriculum with a focus on higher-level critical thinking skills and an emphasis on synthesis of concepts which highlights God’s divine power through order and design. The course emphasizes the application of concepts and derivation of theorems. In addition to the expansion of topics covered in Honors Algebra II/Trigonometry including polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, quadratic, rational, and trigonometric functions, as well as systems of equations and inequalities, matrices, powers, roots, and radicals, probability, linear programming, sequences and series, and conics. In addition, this course will also cover parametric equations, polar equations, inductive proof, and a formal introduction to calculus. The pace of DC Precalculus is very brisk with new, and often complex, material being introduced daily. The course has proven to be beneficial students’ academic growth and success in AP Calculus AB and BC.

**Grade: **10, 11, 12

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: Grade of 93% or better in Algebra II or 83% in Honors Algebra II / Trigonometry. Admissions and placement examination and approval by the student’s Academic & College Counselor required for incoming 9th graders.**

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator.

Probability and Statistics expands on the probability and statistics concepts introduced in Algebra II. This course presents students with the foundational concepts and applications of probability theory and statistics as well as the ethical implications embodied in statistics through a Christian worldview lens. This course will provide students with a basic ability to collect, analyze, and interpret data through descriptive and inferential statistics. Topics include; collecting data, frequency distributions and graphs, data description, measures of central tendency, measures of variation, probability and counting rules, commonly used discrete probability distributions, the normal distribution, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, comparing two populations, correlation and regression, and inference for distributions of categorical data. Emphasis will be placed on the relevance statistics plays in examining, analyzing, and solving real-world problems and is designed to prepare students for college-level probability and statistics courses.

**Grade: **12

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: Grade of 73% or better in Algebra II / Trigonometry, or completion of Pre-Calculus.**

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator.

In preparation for the AP Statistics exam, this course introduces students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data. Students are exposed to four broad conceptual themes: exploring data, planning and conducting a study, anticipating patterns in population data, and statistical Inference. The course makes use of key mathematical concepts taught in algebra with a broader emphasis on clearly defining questions to be investigated, gathering and organizing data, producing informative graphical and numerical summaries, modeling relationships, making decisions while accounting for uncertainty in the data, and clearly communicating results in the context of a study. Students learn to synthesize their mathematics acumen with critical thinking and writing skills to create a framework for evaluating and supporting hypotheses in most disciplines.

**Grade: **11, 12

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Completion of Probability and Statistics or Precalculus, and approval of the student’s Academic & College Counselor. Performance in previous advanced courses will be taken into consideration.

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator. The cost of the required AP exam is approximately $94.

AP Calculus AB expands upon the concepts taught in Precalculus In preparation for the AP Calculus AB exam. This course emphasizes conceptual understanding as well as contextual application of single variable Calculus and presents the idea of a patterned orderly universe created by a sovereign God. The AP Calculus AB framework involves the following concepts: limits, derivatives, antiderivatives, and definite integrals. Central to the course is the connection of these concepts to each other as well as to practical situations. The course emphasizes a multi-representational approach to Calculus, with concepts, results, and problems being expressed graphically, numerically, analytically and verbally. A rigorous review for the AP Calculus AB exam is included. This course will prepare students for the Calculus AB exam and college level math courses.

**Grade: **10, 11, 12

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Grade of 80% or higher in Pre-Calculus and approval of the student’s Academic & College Counselor. Performance in previous advanced courses will be taken into consideration.

**Notes: **The cost of the required AP exam is approximately $94. Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator.

AP Calculus BC expands upon the concepts taught in DC Precalculus and AP Calculus AB In preparation for the AP Calculus BC exam. This course emphasizes conceptual understanding as well as contextual application of single variable Calculus and presents the idea of a patterned orderly universe created by a sovereign God. The AP Calculus BC framework involves the following foundational concepts: limits, derivatives, antiderivatives, and definite integrals. Additional topics included in AP Calculus BC are: Euler’s method, advanced integration techniques, power series, and calculus applied to parametric equations, polar equations, and vectors in two dimensions. Central to the course is the connection of these concepts to each other as well as to practical situations. This course emphasizes a multi-representational approach to calculus, with concepts, results, and problems being expressed graphically, numerically, analytically and verbally. This course includes a rigorous review for the AP Calculus BC examination and prepares students for college-level math courses.

**Grade: **10, 11, 12

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Completion of Dual Credit Pre-Calculus or AP Calculus AB and approval of the student’s Academic & College Counselor. Performance in previous advanced courses will be taken into consideration.

**Notes: **Students are required to have a TI-84 calculator. The cost of the required AP exam is approximately $94.

Dual Credit Multivariable Calculus extends the concepts covered in AP Calculus AB and BC. The course analyzes functions of two and three variables as well as use calculus to evaluate surfaces and curves in three-dimensional space. An emphasis is placed on both a systematic approach to problem-solving as well as exploratory investigation and presents the idea of a patterned orderly universe created by a sovereign God. Topics include vectors, vector-values functions, partial derivatives, analytic geometry, multiple integrals, and line integrals. This course emphasizes a multi-representational approach to calculus, with concepts, results, and problems, being expressed graphically, numerically, analytically and verbally through organized and articulate solutions to theoretical and application problems. This course will prepare students for additional college-level math courses such as linear algebra or vector calculus.

**Grade: **11, 12

**Term: **Year **Credit: **1.0

**Prerequisite: **Completion of AP Calculus BC and approval of the student’s Academic & College Counselor. Performance in previous advanced courses will be taken into consideration.

**Notes: **TI-84 calculator required. There is an additional for concurrent college credit.